Logo Partnership
October 2023

Energies: A new ecosystem


An exciting challenge...

3 min

Just over 7 years ago, when we launched this newsletter, the oil&gas sector was undergoing through an unprecedented crisis that was to have a profound impact on our entire industry. Now we're in 2023, and the current context is very different: Business is picking up again, the world's OSV fleet is under pressure, new producing countries are emerging to join the ranks of the sector's leaders, the offshore wind market is at a pivotal point in its development, between prototyping and the industrialization of floaters, and, of course, the energy transition is underway - the urgent need for we can no longer deny.

These seems to me to be remarkable times in the sense that, for reasons specific to each market - in Oil&Gas as in offshore wind energy - we must adapt, innovate and transform ourselves: 

- in our operations, through digitalization and the use of data, since the connected vessel has gone from being a dream to a present priority;

- in the lifecycle of our vessels, in particular improving their energy performance and extensing of their lifespan;

- at all stages of the supply chain, impacted by political and climatic upheavals and now one of the key challenges facing our industry. 

Every day, this period brings its share of uncertainties but also remarkable successes. It gives us the opportunity to play a key role in the search for a new industrial model. How can one not be enthusiastic about such an exciting challenge? The next ten years will be crucial in guaranteeing the sustainability of this new model and in implementing the foundations of the energy transition.

Such is the offshore energy sector today a sector based, as we have seen, on two pillars with similar issues: a consistently vigorous oil & gas dimension with new leaders emerging, and a renewable dimension teeming with innovations and preparing for a long-awaited industrialization phase. At the heart of this industry, BOURBON continues to transform and position itself over the long term as a reference partner, offering its clients sustainable and innovative marine solutions.

Expert insight

Floating wind turbines: The challenges of maintenance

Subsea Engineering & Project Director - Bourbon Subsea Services
5 min

As offshore wind farm operators take it in turns to move their pawns - and their prototypes - forward with a view to establishing a lasting position in this market before the long-awaited industrialization phase, the question of maintenance of floating structures is tending to take on a central role in establishing the business model for this activity. Nicolas Lompuech, Subsea Engineering & Project Director at Bourbon Subsea Services, sheds light on the evolution of the floating wind energy sector, and gives us a mid-year update. Interview.


PartnerSHIP: In November 2022, PartnerSHIP #15 addressed the industrialization of floating wind turbines. Where do we stand now?

Nicolas Lompuech: We're still in the prototype phase for floating wind turbines, and the entire supply chain is in the process of organizing itself to deal with the constraints of the floating element, which is key to the design of the structure, and in particular logistical and port constraints. The supply chain is faced with very strong demand for fixed wind turbines and structures, which makes it difficult to reconcile fixed and floating wind turbines with short lead times.

PS: What kind of constraints are you talking about?

N. L.: Final assembly and float launching are 2 crucial stages, due to the increasing size of the structures. It's becoming increasingly difficult to carry out the assembly operation, so we proceed in 2 stages: the float launch first, followed by the assembly of the wind turbine by a crane adapted to these non-standard dimensions, in terms of height and load. Today, there are only 5 cranes in the world capable of assembling wind turbine prototypes of up to 20 MW. Offshore wind energy players are therefore looking into technical solutions to operational and logistical constraints.

PS: Numerous prototypes have emerged on the market in recent years. How many different designs are there?

N. L.: I think there are just over a hundred different types of float design on the market, protected by patents. In my opinion, by the industrialization phase, there will only be a dozen or so left. Given the economic stakes involved, all the players involved are doing their utmost to demonstrate the viability of their own float, and it's hard to predict who will emerge victorious from this technological battle, which is a combination of weight, manufacturing cost, seaworthiness and the complexity of anchoring compatible with dynamic electrical cables and structural movement.

PS: Field maintenance is one of the major challenges facing the entire industry. To what extent is it one for BOURBON?

N. L.: Let's distinguish between several maintenance topics: routine maintenance carried out by turbine operators or operators, float maintenance (surveillance) and major repairs/maintenance requiring on-site intervention by ship, with or without de-anchoring. BOURBON, with its fleet of ROVs, can position itself in the anchor and float inspection sector. With regard to major repairs, essentially linked to the prototype status of wind turbines and their systems, BOURBON has already positioned itself in recent years, demonstrating its expertise in the phases of de-anchoring, towing and reconnection. (see illustration below) Our ambition is to be the market leader in heavy maintenance for floating wind turbines, in the industrial phase, by 2035-2045. But before that, we will also be involved in the decommissioning phase of prototypes, if our clients so wish, for wind turbines in test areas that are not intended to remain in place. For more than 10 years, we have been demonstrating our expertise in the phases of towing, anchoring, installation of IAC (Interconnected Cable), commissioning, etc. and we are increasing our expertise in the management of EPCI, purchase & installation of IAC and anchoring lines for a complete field. Our expertise also enables us to handle all logistical, port and operational aspects. We offer our expertise to operators who wish to evaluate end-of-life scenarios for their fields, so as to take into account the full cycle of these developments.


A track record in offshore wind energy that demonstrates Bourbon Subsea Services' ability to transpose its oil and gas know-how into the field of marine renewable energies.

PS: Operators are in the process of integrating heavy maintenance operations on their wind turbines into their budgets, which seems to be a recent phenomenon. What is your analysis of this new type of maintenance?

N. L.: Heavy maintenance is indeed a fairly recent phenomenon, but to my mind it's quite logical. We're still working on designs that aren't completely mature, so there are still adjustments to be made, whether to the turbine, the float or the anchor. You learn as you go. We've proved that heavy maintenance, involving disconnecting the turbine and towing it alongside the quayside, is perfectly feasible, but it remains an exceptional operation. But you're right: it's a real point of attention that's shaking up the market, because operators don't want to take the risk of entering the industrialization phase with a technology that would remain fragile, especially as we're moving towards increasingly powerful turbines, requiring substantial investment. Once again, I'm not surprised that prototypes need to be made more reliable, but it was also important to demonstrate that reversibility was technically feasible, and that's what we've done.

Our ambition is to be the market leader in heavy maintenance for floating wind turbines, in the industrial phase, by 2035-2045.

Subsea Engineering & Project Director - Bourbon Subsea Services

PS: Has wind farm maintenance seen the emergence of new professions? If so, has BOURBON already integrated these new profiles?

N. L.: We want to broaden our scope of intervention and customer support by integrating termination & testing and final commissioning services. With this in mind, we have already strengthened our teams to develop these areas of expertise. We are finding that, more than ever, our customers want a single point of contact for transport & installation ("T&I") projects, and in this context we are faced with a twofold challenge: to meet customer needs across the entire scope and to be responsive, to intervene as quickly as possible and in the shortest possible timeframe. Meeting this challenge also means being able to identify risks, select and mobilize the right assets in the shortest possible time, and manage twenty or so subcontractors. Bourbon Subsea Services has already installed many prototypes and has also been involved in two maintenance operations requiring the decommissioning and recommissioning of a float on site.

Expert insight
Their stories

Guyana, priority to "local content"

Edward Rose Cooper
General Manager - Bourbon Guyana
4 min

As Guyana prepares to become one of the world's leading oil-producing countries, Bourbon Guyana has become the first Guyanese supplier of offshore support vessels, having been awarded the official Local Content certificate by the country's government. Edward Rose Cooper, General Manager, talks about this new status and provides an update on the affiliate's development in this fast-growing area.

PartnerSHIP: Can you provide an update on Bourbon's activity in Guyana?

Edward Rose Cooper: Bourbon Guyana, established in April 2019, started operations with the AHTS Bourbon Liberty 308, the Bourbon Rhesos, as well as a third-party vessel, providing support services to the FPSOs of tankers loading crude for transport to refineries around the world, with the Bourbon Liberty 308 also regularly engaged in export hose maintenance. All vessels regularly take part in pollution clean-up exercises. In 2020, the PSVs Bourbon Sapphire, Bourbon Diamond and Bourbon Calm also went into action, sometimes assisted by third-party vessels. In December 2021, a new AHTS, Bourbon Liberty 243, joined this fleet operating off Guyana. At present, Bourbon Guyana's fleet comprises three AHTS and 3 PSVs, the Bourbon Sapphire, Bourbon Calm and Bourbon Ruby (from early 2024).


PS: What projects is Bourbon Guyana currently involved in, and what commercial prospects do you see?

ERC: We've been working for ExxonMobil in Guyana since 2019 and Saipem since 2020, on the Liza 1, Liza 2 and Payara projects. Saipem's next project, launched at the beginning of 2024, is called Yellowtail and represents a strong development potential for our company in this area. In the future, I believe that other Group entities could very well position themselves alongside our clients to help them meet their operational challenges. I'm thinking, for example, of Bourbon Subsea Services' Bourbon Evolution 800 series MPSVs and Bourbon Mobility's personnel transport vessels, to support the need for passenger transfers at sea with the growing number of FPSOs and drilling units entering the country.


PS: In early September, Bourbon Guyana was awarded its Local Content Certificate by the local government. What is this and what impact does it have on the company's activities?

ERC: The Local Content Certificate is an important milestone for any company operating in the Oil & Gas sector in Guyana. It demonstrates that Bourbon Guyana is now considered a fully-fledged Guyanese company, which should bring real added value to the business. This means that we will have no restrictions on providing services to the oil industry. Indeed, oil and gas operators (Exxon Mobil, REPSOL, CGX Frontera, etc.) are obliged to use local companies for certain services. This new status therefore has many positive consequences that go beyond the immediate operational landscape. In addition, the fact that Bourbon Guyana is majority Guyanese-owned creates a strong sense of local ownership and pride within the industry. This demonstrates the capacity and growing aspiration of Guyanese entrepreneurs to actively participate in the development of the energy sector, catalyzing a sense of empowerment and economic ownership among the population.

Bourbon Guyana is now considered a fully-fledged Guyanese company, which should bring real added value to the business.

Edward Rose Cooper
General Manager - Bourbon Guyana

PS: What is BOURBON's long-term vision for Guyana?

ERC: Bourbon Guyana's strategy is to develop business in Guyana and to engage as much as possible with local stakeholders to help build skills. One such initiative was to pair inexperienced seafarers with experienced ones when we started our operations in the country. All the deckhands on board are now Guyanese nationals, and in the absence of IMO STCW (Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers) approval for the local administration, all have been certified by the maritime administrations of Panama, Honduras and Jamaica. While all our officers are still expatriates, Bourbon Guyana has offered a cadet program for local seafarers to acquire the sea time required by STCW on board our vessels, and internships have been offered to students from ACCA-certified training institutions for onshore operational support and work experience. I believe that transparent and mutually beneficial partnerships with Guyanese companies, universities and government institutions are essential to create an environment of trust, ensure fair business practices and develop a sustainable industry that benefits both the Guyanese population and foreign investors.

Their stories

Reducing environmental impact: An organized approach

Christelle LOISEL
CSR Director - BOURBON
3 min

By achieving its objective of measuring all its greenhouse gas emissions by 2022, BOURBON has initiated the first stage of its environmental approach, one of the Group's 4 major commitments, and has also met the expectations of all its stakeholders. This approach was validated by an external audit and by the award in October of Green Marine Europe certification for Bourbon Offshore Surf, a label designed for maritime companies committed to reducing their impact on the environment.

"We are aware that we have a long way to go, but it's an exciting one. Today, we are well committed to reducing our environmental impact. By being pragmatic but ambitious, at every level of the company.

The audit, by an external expert, of our method of measuring emissions according to the GHG Protocol standard (the international reference), has enabled us to validate our method and improve it. We We also realized that it was absolutely essential to work closely with our clients and suppliers on this issue if we were to make progress", adds Christelle Loisel, BOURBON's CSR Director.

In this context of process reliability and data consolidation, the Group's leading shipmanager, Bourbon Offshore Surf, was awarded Green Marine Europe certification in October, symbolizing the company's commitment to progress in the area of sustainability: "This certification represents a crucial step towards sustainable maritime performance, in terms of emissions reduction, protection of marine ecosystems and responsible waste management. This certification is both an illustration of the significant progress we have made and, above all, a symbol of what we still have to achieve. We want to be a real driving force in our industry's transition to more sustainable shipping. »

A summary of the Group's CSR approach, particularly in terms of environmental impact, together with the results obtained, can be found in the latest Sustainable Development Report, which you can read below.




Born of a collective industry initiative, Green Marine Europe aims to guide maritime operators towards environmental excellence by encouraging them to adopt concrete, measurable actions that go beyond regulatory requirements. The program addresses environmental impacts specific to the maritime sector, such as air and water quality, and marine ecosystems..

It is an inclusive, rigorous and transparent initiative that brings together several types of shipowners, ports and shipyards. To obtain Green Marine Europe certification, candidates must meet a number of requirements and commit to continuous performance improvement over the coming years. Green Marine Europe also brings together associations and partners, each of which in its own way supports candidates in their efforts to reduce their environmental footprint.

Home - Green Marine Europe

Successful together
In pictures

Connected vessel: Optimizing vessel life-cycle and operational safety

In the years to come, the challenge will be to extend the lifespan of the ship fleet, and BOURBON is therefore ensuring that it has perfect knowledge of its state of health by collecting data on board. The use of this data by predictive maintenance tools, both on board, for immediate intervention by technical teams, and ashore, for consolidation of information across the entire fleet, guarantees the technical availability of vessels.

Real-time access to this data also makes it possible to develop decision-making aids for seafarers, with the first concrete application being the Digital ASOG (Activity Specific Operating Guideline), which will guarantee the safety of operations in dynamic positioning.

The Connected Vessel project is now part of a wider research project, Cassiopée (for "Data collection and analysis for operational safety and energy efficiency"), led by a consortium that includes BOURBON, Predict, Bureau Veritas, Opsealog and the Computer Science and Systems Laboratory at Aix-Marseille University.

Discover the principles of the connected vessel in the video below!

In pictures
Shared views

Energy efficiency for Surfers: "Every detail counts..."

Eloi Guillier
New Building Project Manager - Bourbon Mobility
5 min

While BOURBON has made the environment one of its 4 major commitments, Bourbon Mobility, leader in personnel transport, is renewing part of its Surfers fleet. A key differentiating factor: the energy efficiency of these new units. Eloi Guillier, New Building Project Manager, tells us more about the company's approach to reducing emissions.

PartnerSHIP: How does Bourbon Mobility contribute to BOURBON's environmental commitments, particularly in terms of energy efficiency?

Eloi Guillier: Before answering, I'd like to stress that reducing our emissions is indeed a constant commitment, and that everything we do today is done with this in mind. We are fully aligned with the Group's commitments, and we are doing so in a number of ways, starting with raising awareness among our teams in the field, among our sailors. 2 points of attention: the speed of the vessels during the transfer phase, which is very strictly controlled, and the maintenance of the Surfers. It's essential to keep our vessels in good health to avoid over-consumption. For example, we pay close attention to the regular replacement of filters, the condition of the hull, etc. As regards speed, we have well-defined processes that our pilots must follow. Sailing at excessive speed can generate excessive costs in terms of fuel consumption, and therefore high emissions.

PS: In terms of technology, how can you control the consumption of your Surfers?

E. G.: Through monitoring systems such as EFMS (Electronic Fuel Monitoring System), which enables us to control and optimize fuel consumption by adjusting several parameters such as speed, position and operational phase. EFMS tells us when the vessel consumes the most fuel, helping us to find more targeted and, above all, more efficient solutions.

PS: What R&D initiatives have been taken to improve the energy efficiency of the new Surfers?

E. G.: Bourbon Mobility is investing heavily in R&D to improve the vessels' fuel consumption, without compromising either sailing speed - a key competitive advantage in the market - or passenger comfort. The challenge is to find the right compromise between these 3 performance factors. For example, we are currently working with one of our suppliers to develop more efficient jets to reduce the fuel consumption of Surfers. At the same time, we are carrying out a number of studies into the potential gains to be made by adding foils to our vessels, as a transitional solution before moving on to technologies using methanol, hydrogen and so on.

Bourbon Mobility is investing heavily in R&D to improve the vessels' fuel consumption, without compromising either sailing speed - a key competitive advantage in the market - or passenger comfort.

Eloi Guillier
New Building Project Manager - Bourbon Mobility

PS: You just mentioned naval engineers. How do you involve your strategic suppliers in this process?

E. G.: That's a good question, because our suppliers are fully involved in our thinking. For example, we encourage our partner shipyards to measure and reduce their emissions, a project which takes time and investment, but which will ultimately enable us to achieve significant results.

PS: 4 Surfers are currently under construction (see Christophe Poizeau's box) and 6 more are due to be built very soon. What are Bourbon Mobility's ambitions in terms of energy efficiency for these new units?

E. G.: We aim for a minimum 20% reduction in fuel consumption for new buildings, the first criterion being the change in propulsion systems. We're integrating new-generation jets and engines on our 20m and 26m models. The hulls are also being examined with a fine-toothed comb, and constantly optimized using increasingly powerful calculation software to improve the hydrodynamics of the hull. Finally, to further reduce fuel consumption and drag, we're equipping our Surfers with the latest generation of appendages to prevent the vessel from pitching up too much at full speed. These small flaps enable the vessel to maintain a horizontal position on the water, whatever its speed. In this quest for energy efficiency, I'd like to say that there are no details. Everything counts, and the sum of these optimizations, which may sometimes seem minor, enable us to achieve very good results, even though our vessels operate in sometimes hostile environments.

PS: What do you mean by "hostile environment"?

E. G.: In certain areas of operation, the water can be very clogged, which inevitably has an impact on the ship's operation, not to mention the humidity and heat, which don't always go down well with the most advanced technologies. The quality of the fuel we use in certain areas of operation can also damage engines, and this is a constant point of attention for our technical teams.

PS: What is the impact of these latest technological developments on the cost of a Surfer?

E. G.: The price of a Surfer has obviously risen, notably due to inflation, but the main cost is that of R&D, which is borne by Bourbon Mobility upstream of the construction phases. We don't buy ships "off the shelf", but design them from A to Z with naval architecture firms and partner shipyards, based on feedback from the seafarers who pilot them on a daily basis, and from our technical referents, not to mention our technology watch. Each of our Surfers is the fruit of a long process of reflection, with specifications that meet all our requirements, including the essential need to reduce emissions. But our greatest asset is our 40 years of experience and the millions of passengers we've carried to date.


3 questions to :


Christophe POIZEAU, Operational Manager EFINOR-ALLAIS

BOURBON's environmental approach goes hand in hand with raising awareness among its strategic suppliers of the necessary energy transition. Christophe Poizeau, Operational Manager at EFINOR - Allais, describes the measures adopted by the shipyard to reduce its carbon footprint while maintaining its industrial performance.

PartnerSHIP: How long have you noticed a change of direction among your clients in terms of energy transition?

Chistophe Poizeau: Over the last 2-3 years or so, we've noticed that our clients are becoming increasingly aware of the need to reduce their carbon footprint, and are challenging us on this issue. This inevitably feeds our development and our search for ever more effective solutions.

PS: In your contractual relationship with BOURBON, how has this been reflected?

C. P.: Very concretely, we contractually owe them the carbon footprint of their future vessels. I should point out that this is the 1st time a client has asked us to do this. This encourages us to deploy the same type of approach with our own suppliers, in a win-win relationship! It seems obvious to me that these practices will become more widespread over the next few years.

PS: Have you set quantified targets for reducing your emissions?

C. P.: We don't have any quantified targets at the moment, but we are in the process of implementing a global environmental approach. Our commitments are made at 2 levels: on the building itself and on operations. Our building is located on a military base and doesn't belong to us, so we don't have much room for manoeuvre in this respect. However, we have invested heavily in LED lighting for our 18,000 m2 workshop, and are in the process of doing the same for our offices. In terms of industrial equipment, over the past 2 years we have been renewing our fleet of welding machines, the main driver of energy consumption, as well as our plasma sheet metal cutting tables. Finally, we are gradually investing in a fleet of electric vehicles. The environment is a subject that is taking on a major role within the company, particularly in our internal communications. Our efforts to raise awareness of environmental issues have a real impact on our business. We sort our waste and 80% of the aluminum used to manufacture our ships is recycled aluminum....

Shared views

Retrofit: A solution for the future

Cyrille LE BRIS
Chief Disruption Officer - Bourbon Marine and Logistics
4 min

Decarbonizing a fleet can be achieved by retrofitting vessels. But what are we talking about when we talk about this notion, and why should we use this approach? These are the questions answered by Cyrille Le Bris, Chief Disruption Officer. Interview.

PartnerSHIP: Offshore support vessel operators are facing the challenge of an upcoming ageing of their fleet. Why not consider a newbuilding program?

Cyrille Le Bris: Indeed, OSV's worldwide fleet of around 3,500 units has an average age of just over 11 years. Until now, the main players in the sector have worked with vessels rarely exceeding 20 years of age, to ensure good technical reliability. In such cases, it would be advisable to launch new-build programs. But this scenario is out of the question. There are two main reasons for this. Firstly, the economic context, linked to the long crisis that all operators have just gone through. Secondly, there is currently no breakthrough technology, particularly in terms of decarbonization. Today, a modern OSV must meet DP2 standards and be equipped with diesel-electric propulsion, which is already the case for over 90% of the vessels in the BOURBON fleet. There has been good progress in R&D on biofuels or eFuels, but they are not adapted to the areas in which we operate, especially in terms of logistics. So investing in new vessels today is not a good idea. However, the challenge of reducing the carbon footprint of OSVs is becoming an important issue for the offshore energy industry in general, and for BOURBON in particular, even though our Group is already virtuous in its diesel-electric propulsion and its policy of management of fuel consumption based on rigorous monitoring and crew awareness-raising.


PS: In such a context, how do you ensure the reliability of your fleet, while at the same time addressing the issue of decarbonization?

C. L.B.: When we talk about decarbonizing the maritime sector, we need to keep in mind the "net zero" target for 2050, i.e. 30 years from now. As far as OSVs are concerned, the road to "net zero" will be a two-stage process. While it is already possible to build an OSV of this type, the choice of the appropriate propulsion mode, the associated "fuel" logistics and the cost still raise many questions. We also need to improve the carbon footprint of ships currently in service, using existing solutions such as variable frequency drives, more efficient insulation and LED lighting. Then, probably in the decade 2040-2050, "net zero" OSVs will be built. And so, to answer your question, BOURBON very quickly considered that retrofitting vessels was the best way to reconcile the two current needs, i.e. making our fleet more reliable and starting decarbonization.


PS: What does it mean to "retrofit" a ship?

C. L.B.: First of all, I'd like to point out that, although it's not a common practice in offshore marine services, retrofits are often practiced in the industrial world, particularly in the defense and rail sectors, but also in other maritime sectors. The aim is to extend a vessel's life cycle, by modernizing and transforming it. This involves giving a second life to the ship's "skeleton", i.e. its hull, superstructures and decks, as well as to its collectors - its "arteries" - which are strengthened and refurbished; and, of course, to its "organs": the propulsion and energy systems, whether electric, hydraulic or pneumatic. Here, the decision is most often taken to replace them with modern, latest-generation equipment, or to carry out an in-depth inspection to eliminate any obsolescence. Last but not least, attention is also paid to "cosmetics", notably by modernizing the interior fittings, which are important for the crew's working conditions. Thus rejuvenated, the vessel is fit to sail for many years to come, with perfect reliability and offering advantages comparable to those of a new vessel. In addition, a retrofit is fully in line with the 3Rs approach - "Reduce, Reuse, Recycle" - which should guide any good environmental policy: reducing emissions with new technology systems that consume less energy and, above all, save the heavy carbon footprint of a new build, reusing certain equipment to extend its lifespan, and systematically recycling landed materials and machinery. In short, a retrofit not only makes a vessel more reliable, but also contributes to the necessary decarbonization.


PS: How is BOURBON approaching this issue?

C. L.B.: We have approached a number of class-leading companies who offer so-called "condition assessment programs" or "life extensions studies". These methods are ideally suited to a retrofit project, as they enable an in-depth inspection of the condition of the vessel and its equipment, and the need for updates in line with current regulations. It is then possible to precisely define the work required to ensure that the vessel is modernized and capable of meeting our customers' needs over the next 10 or even 15 years. The fact that these class companies check that the work has been carried out correctly is also a guarantee of quality.


PS: Does the scope of class companies extend to the environmental impact of these ships?

C. L.B.: For these questions, we are working with a design office and have drawn up a review of all the solutions available today that are capable of reducing the level of greenhouse gas emissions from boats. We have identified those that are most mature, best adapted to the needs of an OSV and most efficient. The simultaneous use of some of them could generate emissions reductions of the order of 20-25%. Of course, retrofitting is a good idea, even if some of them can be installed independently.


PS: How do your clients feel about retrofitting?

C. L.B.: Although some of them were cautious at first, they are now embracing this approach. They appreciate the coherence of our approach and the solid foundations of our thinking.


PS: In recent years, BOURBON has made considerable efforts to digitalize its vessels and processes. How does this fit in with retrofitting?

C. L.B.: Yes, a retrofit can also be an opportunity to carry out work that contributes to further digitizing the way the vessel is operated, even though BOURBON often carries this out without waiting for such a deadline. There is a lot of data-generating equipment on board. Gathering this data and transmitting it ashore in near-real time for proper use opens up a host of new possibilities, including better remote support to optimize maintenance, as well as new methods for monitoring operations and vessel utilization. All these innovations contribute to operational excellence and lower energy consumption. These are two of BOURBON's top priorities. The group is also leading the "Connected Vessel" project. In 2020, based on our ideas around the use of data, we built a concept that we presented to industrial and academic partners. They decided to join us in co-constructing a program we called "Cassiopée". It has received support from public bodies and a grant from ADEME, the French agency for ecological transition. Some of our boats are already equipped and testing the first pilot applications, with promising initial results.